Global Lighting Forum

The Community Zone

Community Administration

Come here to read news and announcements from the manufacturer.lighting team. Post your feedback, comments, and suggestions about the community and manufacturer.lighting. Ask for support with regard to the use of this community.
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Member Lounge

Introduce yourself and/or your company for a very warm welcome from the rest of the community. Talk about whatever suits your fancy but please stay away from all controversial and offensive topics.
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The Lighting Industry

Industry News and Events

An open space for people in the lighting industry to share news and events impacting the industry.
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Lighting Manufacturer Reviews

The lighting industry is crammed with unreliable manufacturers whose capabilities are often limited to assembly operations and low levels of vertical integration. The lighting market is flooded with crappy products and meaningless warranties. Post your reviews, create alerts, report scams, and issue warnings with regard to the products and business ethics of lighting manufacturers that you have firsthand experiences with.
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Sales and Marketing

Share and explore innovative, actionable or useful strategies, experiences, knowledge, tips, resources and tools for advancing the practices of product marketing, sales driving, brand development, and customer relationship management.
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Testing and Certification

Testing and certification for lighting products (light sources, lamps, luminaires) in line with the prescribed directives and standards provide a suite of competitive advantages. Certifications or qualifications (in UL, DLC, Lighting Facts, CEC, Title 24, Energy Star, CE, CB, CCC, GS, PSE, RCM, NOM, ENEC, etc.) support your market entry, reduce manufacturer's liability risk, and communicate a high-quality standard to your customers.
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Equipment and Supplies

The production of light sources, lamps and luminaires involves the use of a wide range of specialized manufacturing equipment. The manufacturing equipment for LED products include, but not limited to, metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) epitaxial growth, wafer processing, LED packaging, surface mount technology (SMT) assembling, and PCB fabrication and assembly equipment. Testing and inspection equipment includes end-of-line electrical, photometric, and accelerated aging test equipment such as integrating spheres, integrating photometers, physical photometers, spectrophotometers, spectroradiometers, goniophotometers, photometers, colorimeters, illuminance meters, densitometers, environmental test chambers, EMC/EMI test equipment, surge generators, salt spray test equipment, etc. Discussion in this board also covers supplies used in the production of light sources, lamps and luminaires.
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The Lighting World

Lighting Design

A quality lighting design attempts to address every human need with regard to lighting—task visibility, task performance, mood and atmosphere, visual comfort, aesthetic judgement, social communication, health, safety and well-being. A quality lighting design also enhances architecture and takes economics, energy efficiency and environment into consideration.
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Lighting Engineering

The topic of lighting engineering in this forum explores the design and development of lighting products using the principles of electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical engineering. It is concerned about creating and developing concepts and specifications that optimize of the function, value, aesthetics, economics and production processes of lighting systems.
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Lighting 101

Basics and knowledge about lighting. This board is designed to provide you a practical understanding and information on lighting.
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LED Lighting

LED Lighting

A place where you can discuss LED lighting topics that are not covered in other sister discussion boards. An LED lighting system is a multidimensional design and engineering work which involves expertise and excellence in thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical sub-systems. Share knowledge and discuss the latest trends, development and innovations in LED technology.
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LED Chips and Packages

LED packages (mid-power, high power, COB, CSP); package components and materials (semiconductor dies, substrates, phosphors, encapsulant, lenses, bonding wires, electrodes).
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  • Shine

LED Modules and Light Engines

An LED module (or LED array is an assembly of LED packages or LED dies on a printed circuit board (e.g. MCPCB) or a high thermal conductivity dielectric substrate. An LED light engine is an integrated assembly of LED packages or LED modules, driver circuitry and other optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical components.
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  • Shine

LED Drivers and Power Supplies

An LED driver or LED power supply regulates the incoming power to provide a constant current or constant voltage for operating an LED or a string (or strings) of LEDs. The driver may be designed to accept input power of various types, including alternating current (AC) line power and direct current (DC) power from DC micro-grids or Power over Ethernet (PoE). The driver may include dimming circuits to adjust the light output.
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LED Thermal Management

A thermal management system provides a path to dissipate the heat generated by the LEDs, keeping the temperature of all components within functional and absolute maximum limits. Approaches to thermal management include active cooling and passive heat sinking.
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Connected Lighting

Smart Lighting

Smart lighting is designed to provide adaptive illumination and allows for communication and interaction between the lighting system, people, the environment, and other devices. Adding intelligence and communication capabilities to LED lighting systems greatly enhances the value of lighting systems and enables a wide array of features, services, benefits, and revenue streams. The Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming lighting systems into smart, digital nodes that can be integrated with other things such as smartphones, building automation systems, smart city and industrial IoT infrastructures.
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Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of physical things or devices that have context awareness and can communicate with IP based devices on the Internet. Seamless integration of the real world with the digital world through networked sensors, actuators, embedded hardware and software drives a wide array of applications, services, benefits, and revenue streams. The connection and information exchange between IoT devices and IoT applications are orchestrated by an IoT platform which incorporates processing capabilities, firmware, connectivity and an open architecture connected to sensors.
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Human Centric Lighting (HCL)

Human centric lighting (HCL) relates to the holistic design, planning and implementation of the visual, biological and emotional effects of light for supporting the well-being, performance and health of the human being. It uses tunable white LED lighting to mimic the timing, duration, intensity, and color of natural daylight, thereby synchronizing the human circadian clock to the earth’s 24-hour light-dark rotational cycle for an enormously positive influence on the human hormonal balance.
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Lighting Control

Lighting controls provide the functions of switching (on/off) and/or dimming for lighting systems. Lighting control equipment refers to a collection of input/output devices that receive manual or automatic input, and respond accordingly with switching or dimming outputs. Products discussed here include manual controls, occupancy sensors, daylight harvesting controls (photosensors), and other devices for implementing various lighting control strategies.
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General, Task and Accent Lighting

Lamps (Light Bulbs and Tubes)

An LED lamp is an assembly comprised of an LED module or an LED package, a lamp base made to dimensions prescribed by various standards, and other optical, thermal, mechanical and electrical components. An LED lamp may come with an integrated LED driver or powered by a remote driver. Lamps in common use include A-shape ("Arbitrary") or general service bulbs, BR (bulged reflector) bulbs, PAR (parabolic aluminized reflector) bulbs, candelabra base bulbs, GU10 bulbs, MR16 bulbs, and T8 LED tubes.
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High Bay and Low Bay Lights

High bay and low bay lights refers to ceiling-mounted luminaires designed for a variety of industrial and commercial applications. Their footprint is found in warehouses, manufacturing facilities, big-box retail stores, exhibition halls, convention centers, gymnasiums, garages, hangars, railway and airport terminals. Hay bay lights are installed in spaces where the mounting height is not less than 6.1 m (20 ft). Low bay lights are designed for applications where the mounting height is less than 6.1 m (20 ft).
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Roadway, Street and Area Lights

Roadway luminaires are designed for roads that are not intended to have significant pedestrian or cyclist activity. Street lights provide illumination for roads where pedestrian and cyclists are present. Area lights, such as high mast lights, parking lot lights and post top lights, provide controlled illumination for outdoor areas.
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Outdoor Flood Lights

A flood light is designed to project a beam for illuminating an area, scene or object to a luminance greater than its surroundings. Floodlights are found in an extensive range of applications which include area lighting, sports lighting, landscape lighting, facade and structure lighting, security lighting, billboard lighting, etc. Outdoor spotlights are a category of floodlights that are designed to produce a fixed or adjustable narrow beam.
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Sports Lighting Systems

Sports lighting systems are designed to provide an appropriate luminous environment that quantitatively and qualitatively contributes to the visibility of the playing target, the competitors and the surrounding backgrounds. Types of venues which sports and recreational activities are undertaken include stadiums, arenas, gymnasiums, athletic fields, pools, and play fields.
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Ceiling and Wall Lights (Residential, Hospitality)

Pendant lights, chandeliers, flush-mount flush ceiling lights, semi-flush ceiling lights, wall sconces for residential and hospitality lighting. Depending on the percentages of total luminaire output emitted above and below horizontal, ceiling-mounted light fixtures are classified into direct lighting, indirect lighting, semi-direct lighting, general diffuse lighting, direct-indirect lighting, and semi-indirect lighting systems.
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Commercial Ceiling Lights

Recessed troffer luminaires, edge-lit LED panel lights, pendant light fixtures, linear trunking systems, and other ceiling light fixtures designed for use in offices, commercial buildings, healthcare facilities, libraries and educational facilities.
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Table and Floor Lamps

Table and floor lamps are portable luminaires that fuse form and function to deliver a symbiotic union of design and practicality. A table lamp comes with short stand suitable for standing on furniture and a floor lamp is designed with a high stand that allows the lamp to stand on the floor. Table and floor lamps serve as a conversation piece to accentuate the vibe of a home while providing task illumination for activities such as reading, writing, and computer works.
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Desk Lamps and Reading Lights

Desk lamps and reading lights are designed to provide adequate task illuminance and maximum visual comfort for reading, writing, crafting, drafting, sewing, knitting, scrapbooking, crocheting, painting, tattoo, makeup, etc. A good desk lamp spares you from visual fatigue and glare and helps harvest a creative work environment.
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Downlights and Directional Luminaires

Recessed downlights are architectural luminaires that provide ambient, accent, wall wash or task lighting for interior spaces where pendant and surface mount light fixtures can be visually obtrusive. They are offered in an array of trim options and aperture sizes. Other directional luminaires such as track lights and surface-mounted luminaires are a workhorse in retail establishments, showrooms, museums and art galleries.
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Architectural Lighting Fixtures

Lighting systems and the light pattern they produce can be a part of any design composition of an architecture. The integration of lighting and architecture creates a need for light fixtures that blend into the architecture. Architectural lighting fixtures include cove lighting systems, plaster-in LED systems, and accent luminaires which can be uplighting or downlighting systems.
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Under Cabinet and Furniture-integrated Lights

Under cabinet and furniture-integrated lighting is an essential addition to any kitchen, closet, pantry, retail store, and office space. These lights are typically added under or integrated into a cabinet, shelf, display case, cubicle, work bench, cornice, valence, toe-kick, stair, or handrail to provide task or accent lighting, to reduce shadows cast, or to complement general lighting throughout a space.
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LED Strip Lights

An LED strip light is a linear array of mid-power LEDs designed for use with hard-wire DC hook-ups. The flexible design of LED strips allows for use in a wide range of applications such as but not limited to under cabinet lighting, cove lighting, TV back lighting, staircase lighting, linear architectural lighting, bar lighting, kitchen lighting, toe kick lighting, and accent lighting for recreation vehicles.
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Portable Work and Task Lights

This section discusses about portable lighting systems that can deliver ambient or task lighting for indoor and outdoor work sites, with the flexibility to move the light wherever you want. Products fall into this section include portable flood lights, handheld task lights, inspection lights, and penlights. Most potable lights are powered by rechargeable batteries and are ergonomically designed for ease of use.
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Special Application Lighting

Decorative Lighting

Decorative lights and ornamental lamps are designed to create certain effects, designs, atmospheres, or festive moods for religious holidays and observances (e.g. the Christian holiday of Christmas), national holidays and commemorations, particular occasions and personal accomplishments. A myriad of decorative lighting products exist. One of the most common types of decorative lighting are light strings which can be hung, strung, affixed, or mounted in the indoors and outdoors of residential dwellings, retail stores, hospitality spaces, public buildings, office cubicles, courtyards, city squares and parks. Decorative lights also come in forms of icicles, net lights, battery operated candles, lava lamps, character lights, tree lights and laser lights.
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Landscape Lighting

Landscape lighting unifies the relationship between the indoors and outdoors to create a cohesive nighttime environment. Landscape lighting shows off the beauty of hardscape and softscape. Hardscape refers to outdoor elements with architectural features such as monuments, sculptures, fountains, water features, walls and vertical displays. Softscape lighting include the illumination of trees, shrubs, and other plants that landscape a building.
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Façade and Structure Lighting

Façade and structure lighting can enhance the intrinsic charm, beauty, and utility of architectural settings. Well-designed facade and structure lighting creates architectural impressions, points of interest, prestige, symbolism, recognition, and safety for a building and its surroundings. Walls and facades also allow communicative lighting solutions, i.e. media facades, to be implemented. Architectural façades are becoming the focus of new media communication for presenting brands, values and messages. The advent of LED technology fuels the practice of integrating lighting and media applications into architectural façades.
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Sign and Signage Lighting

Light modules for backlighting of channel letters, advertising signs, and light boxes. Illuminated signs and signage can command attention, make inspiring worlds of commerce come to life, and communicate a message to a specific group. LED technology enables attention grabbing signage lighting and provides maximum freedom of signage design.
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Hazardous Location Lighting

Hazardous locations refer to classified areas where flammable gas or vapors, or combustible dust, or easily ignitable flyings or fibers are present or can be presented. Lighting systems intended for installation in hazardous locations must be engineered, tested and certified for the specific Class, Division or Zone, and Group. Hazardous locations are typically found in industrial environments including petroleum refineries, oil drilling rigs, off-shore and dockside installations, gasoline storage and dispensing plants, paint manufacturing plants, mining operations, grain handling facilities, fuel transfer terminals, ammunition facilities, tank farms, and pipeline pumping stations.
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Exit Signs and Emergency Lighting

Emergency lighting provides backup illumination and guidance to people critical times when they need to be evacuated quickly and safely from a building. Emergency egress lights must illuminate the exit access (the interior pathway), the exit (the exit doorway), and the exit discharge (the area immediately outside the building). Exit signs provided at all egress routes must be illuminated to assist progression towards the route of escape to a point of safety.
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Security Lighting

Security lighting is installed to discourage or deter intruder access attempts and facilitate detection and assessment of intrusion. Security lighting can be a standalone installation as a passive element. However, security lighting systems are increasingly being designed as active security elements that can interact with a would-be intruder or criminal. Motion-sensor controlled lighting, which is active in application, is often integrated to work in unison with video surveillance systems to create effective zones of protection.
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Horticulture Lighting

Horticulture lighting drives photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoperiodism and phototropism of plants by stimulating plant photoreceptors with a customized light recipe targeted for the species and specific growth phase. LED lighting opens up new opportunities for vertical farming facilities, grow chambers/facilities, and greenhouses to increase yield, improve plant quality, and precisely control growing cycles at minimal operational cost.
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Studio Lighting

Continuous lighting systems and strobe lights for photography, video broadcast and cinematography lighting. A broad category of studio lighting equipment is used for producing key light, fill light, backlight, background light, rim light, eye light, accent light, and accent light. Hard lights are directional lighting systems that create a sharply defined shadow. Soft lights are designed to throw diffused light which have shadows with fuzzy edges.
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Aircraft Lighting

Aircraft interior lights that illuminate aircraft instruments, cockpits, cabins, and other sections occupied by crewmembers and passengers. Cabin lighting products ranges from ambient, reading, seat and stowage lights to emergency lights, escape path marks and passenger information signs. Aircraft exterior lights include position, anti-collision, fuselage, formaton, wing clearance, emergency, ground recognition, ice detection, landing, and taxi lights.
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Aeronautical Lighting

Aeronautical lights are luminous signs or signals that are designed as aids to air navigation. This portfolio or products include aerodrome beacons, airway beacons, course lights, hazard or obstruction beacons, identification beacons, landmark beacons, angle-of-approach lights, approach lights, approach light beacons, runway-end identification lights, runway alignment indicators, obstruction lights, boundary lights, runway lights, circling guidance lights, channel lights, taxi-channel lights, taxiway lights, runway-exit lights, and landing direction indicators.
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Marine Lighting

Lighting products for interior and exterior illumination of ships, boats and yachts. Marine lights include navigation lights, dock and deck lights, flood and spreader lights, searchlights, dome and down lights, bunk and cabin lights, courtesy lights, and underwater lights. Marine lighting systems requires the highest standards of engineering so the lights will survive the harsh exposure to weather and water.
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Medical Lighting

Lighting products for use in the healthcare industry. This category of products encompasses surgical lights, medical examination lights, physician headlights, diagnostic lights (UV woods lights and penlights), dental chair lights, dental curing lights, infrared heat lamps, patient room lights, sealed and certified isolation room lights.
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Stage Lighting

Stage lighting is designed to support the live performance for both the performers and the audience. An extraordinary show demands punchy beams, saturated washes and spectacular effects from a variety of lighting instruments that work in unison. Stage and theatrical lighting equipment includes elliposoidal reflector spotlights, Fresnel lensed spotlights, moving heads, PAR heads, striplights, cyclorama lights, followspots, projectors, effect lights, etc.
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UV Disinfection

UV germicidal lights produce radiant energy in the UV-C spectral band (100 nm to 280 nm) to destroy bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses (microorganisms). UV disinfection works by disrupting the DNA (nucleic acid) of pathogenic organisms, rearranging its genetic information, and interfering with the cell's ability to reproduce. The maximum absorption of radiant energy by the nucleic acid occurs at a wavelength of 260 nm.
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Personal Lighting

Flashlights

A flashlight is a battery powered luminaire that is designed to be extremely handy and lightweight so as to be carried with a minimum of effort and discomfort. Flashlights provide portability, visibility, ergonomics and practicality for a wide array of activities and applications including camping, hunting, hiking, fishing, law enforcement, security patrols, inspections and repair work, search and rescue, emergency and backup lighting.
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Lanterns

Lanterns are portable luminaires that produce omnidirectional light for widespread illumination. Whether used for outdoor adventures such as camping, hiking, fishing, hunting, boating, or as a handy addition to your household emergency kit during power outages, a lantern is a great survival tool no matter the situation. Portable lanterns are operated by a rechargeable battery pack. The use of energy efficient LEDs enables lanterns to run a decent amount of time. A built-in hanging hook within the handle allows for hands-free use.
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Headlamps

A headlamp provides hands-free lighting for a variety of recreational, professional and household tasks, adventures and activities. Lightweight, battery-powered, and weather-resistant LED headlamps are the go-to companions for people who practices outdoor activities such as hunting, running, camping, biking, fishing or exploring nature on a regular basis. Headlamps are often equipped with beam focusing optics that allow the beam to be adapted for long distance spotting or close range area floodlighting.
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Dive Lights

Divelights are specially designed for underwater sports practiced by recreational, technical and commercial divers as well as dive photographers and videographers. These devices must be watertight under pressure and corrosion resistant to withstand the harsh underwater environment. The beam spread of a diving light, be it a tight beam or a wide flood, depends on the kind of diving activities. A tight beam with little spill light help see down caves and crevaces, or into wrecks. It also provides better visibility in murky water.
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Bike Lights

Bike lights are handlebar-mounted bike headlights which are designed to illuminate efficiently the path ahead while creating the attention-getting effect to keep the bike safely seen by other commuters and vehicle drivers. A bike light is typically designed with at least three work modes (high, low, and flash modes) to provide versatility needed for riding in a variety of road conditions.
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Automotive Lighting

Car Headlights

Automotive headlamps enable the driver of a vehicle to easily see objects around and ahead of the vehicle while notifying other vehicles and road users of the vehicle's location in the dark. Automotive headlamps are generally configured to switch an illumination mode between an upper beam (high beam) and a lower beam (low beam). The high beam or driving beam is intended for distant illumination with the maximum brightness permitted within the range defined in the relevant law. The low beam or passing beam is directed low enough to limit glare in the eyes of oncoming drivers.
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Tail Lights

A tail light is used to designate the rear of a vehicle by a warning light and thus indicate the presence of the vehicle to others. The rear turn signal lights and brake lights (stop lights) are usually parts of the tail light assembly.
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Fog Lights

A fog light is an auxiliary forward lighting device mounted low to the front of a vehicle to improve illumination of the road under conditions of fog, snowfall, heavy rain or dust clouds. Fog lamps typically produce a wide beam of light which pierces through murky weather conditions to give drivers adequate visibility.
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Off-road Lights

Off-road lights are designed to increase visibility when driving through harsh off-road environments—from unsurfaced roads and rugged, unexplored terrains to crosscountry, muddy courses and desert racing. Off-road lighting systems may be provided as flood lights, driving lights or fog lights. These systems are rigorously engineered to endure the rough and tumble of off-road, powersports, general automotive, fire and rescue applications that need reliable, powerful lighting.
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Turn Signal Lights

Automotive signal lights are designed to show the driver's intent to change lane or direction. These lights blink at a steady rate of 60 to 120 flashes per minute, providing a visible indicator to other road users as to the intended direction of the vehicle. Signal lights are mounted on the front portion and rear portion of the vehicle. The visible indicator can take many forms, including turn signals, corner lights, bumper lights, parking lights, hazard flashers, side marker lights and cab roof lights.
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Automotive Light Bulbs

Headlight and fog light conversion kits. Halogen and Xenon HID headlight bulbs. Halogen and LED bulbs for daytime running lights, turn signal lights, fog lights, tail lights, stop/brake lights, reverse lights, trunk lights, parking lights, and license plate lights. Car interior light bulbs for use in dome, courtesy, dashboard, glove box, and map lights.
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Vehicle Work Lights

Vehicle work lights provide auxiliary lighting for increasing forward distance and high-speed visibility, and/or for improving peripheral illumination in an off-road environment. These lights are designed and built to withstand harsh working environments where weather-related fluctuations, hour-long use, corrosive atmosphere, dust, bumps, knocks and vibration may be present. Vehicle work lights are often installed on agricultural tractors and self-propelled agricultural machines, forestry vehicles, excavation equipment, construction machinery, mining equipment, vehicles for commercial use, municipal vehicles, emergency vehicle, and snow ploughs.
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Emergency and Warning Lights

Emergency and warning lights are installed on police cars, fire and rescue trucks, ambulances, and utility equipment for the purpose of conveying to other road users the urgency of their journey, signaling another driver to stop for interaction with an officer in law enforcement, or warning a hazard. These lights can be classified in three categories: rotating, flashing and strobe lights.
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Other Lighting Technologies

Laser Diode Lighting

Laser diodes are high flux density light sources capable of throwing a clean beam of light over a long distance. This advantage makes laser lighting of particular interest in automotive applications where a high beam with a long penetration distance is desired. Laser diodes emit light through the process of stimulated emission. This mechanism makes it possible to instantly recombine all the charges injected into the quantum region, thus avoiding efficiency droop—a fundamental challenge for LED lighting.
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OLED Lighting

An OLED (organic light emitting diode) produces light when holes and electrons recombine in the organic electroluminescent layer. OLEDs can be deposited on a variety of flexible and rigid substrates to form a luminous panel that produces white light evenly over the complete surface. A white OLED light panel typically contains several layers of red, green and blue emitters that together generate white light with a high color quality.
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